Awardees' Articles

HFSP Program Grant holders Ken Duffy and Ton Schumacher and colleagues

Thursday 11th February 2016

The production of blood cells is more complicated than scientists have assumed until now. The stem cells for all blood and immune cells branch into a series of different types of precursor cells, instead of the two that scientists had previously identified.

 

HFSP Young Investigator Grant holder Rafael Carazo Salas and colleagues

Friday 22nd January 2016

Though it is clear that cellular shape results from a combination of biochemical regulation and mechanical forces, how both control layers actually cooperate to generate specifically-shaped cellular domains is not clear. Using biophysical modeling and quantitative microscopy we show that in fission yeast, a unicellular eukaryote, the shape of growth domains in cells can be quantitatively predicted by the mechanical properties of the cell wall and the pattern of exocytic vesicle delivery.

 

HFSP Career Development Award holder Aurélien Roux and colleagues

Thursday 21st January 2016

Cell membranes are very elastic. They can be bent and stretched as required, when the cell divides, or when a virus detaches itself from the cell. In both cases, the membrane is deformed by a protein complex called ESCRT-III. Up until now, we did not understand how this complex works. Swiss and French researchers say that this protein complex forms a molecular spring at the surface of the cell, and operates like a watch spring.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Emmanuel Derivery and colleagues

Monday 18th January 2016

During asymmetric cell division, fate determinants contained in signaling endosomes segregate unequally into one of the two daughter cells, thereby initiating asymmetric cell fate determination. Here, we found that this unequal endosome partitioning relies on the symmetry breaking of the central spindle.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Huan Bao and colleagues

Friday 15th January 2016

Secretion of neurotransmitters via exocytotic fusion pores is essential for synaptic transmission. However, the ephemeral nature of fusion pores has severely limited previous efforts to study their composition and structure. Here, we developed an in vitro system to probe the biochemical properties of fusion pores.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Matthias Heidenreich and colleagues

Thursday 14th January 2016

Novel genome engineering tools based on the CRISPR-Cas system enable a broad range of applications from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine. The tremendous power of this technology for studying the complexity of the nervous system has now been highlighted in a recent article published in Nature Reviews Neuroscience.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellows Magor Lőrincz and Eran Lottem and colleagues

Tuesday 12th January 2016

Involved in the regulation of mood, perception and some pathological conditions, serotonin is a key neuromodulator substance, yet its exact role in sensory processing has remained elusive. Specific activation of serotonin containing neurons in the brain using optogenetic tools caused a suppression of spontaneous but not sensory stimulation evoked activity in the olfactory cortex. Our results show for the first time that serotonin regulates the balance between signals generated internally and sensory...

 

HFSP Program Grant holder Juan José Vaquero and colleagues

Friday 8th January 2016

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important clinical modality as well as a valuable tool in preclinical studies, mainly used in murine models of disease. However, the physics of the image formation limits the image resolution that can be achieved in in vivo experiments. The presented algorithm overcomes one of the most elusive limitations of the PET imaging technique, the positron range (PR) that precedes the generation of the gamma rays detected and used to reconstruct the image.

 

HFSP Cross-Disciplinary Fellow Sebastian Fürthauer and HFSP Program Grant holder Daniel Needleman and colleagues

Thursday 7th January 2016

To better understand important cellular structures we studied networks of stabilized microtubules in Xenopus egg extracts. We found that the molecular motor dynein organizes microtubules into networks of asters and generates large scale contractions by collecting microtubule minus ends.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Matteo Rauzi and colleagues

Monday 4th January 2016

When tissue remodeling occurs during development, diverse cell shape changes take place at the same time at different positions in the embryo. Integrating cell properties and cell mechanics at the embryo scale enables understanding of how tissues coordinate and interact during development to sculpt the embryo.