Awardees' Articles

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Georg Keller and colleagues

Thursday 12th July 2012

Neural activity in visual cortex of a behaving mouse can be better explained by a combination of expectations of what the mouse is about to see and deviations from these expectations, than by visual input alone.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Sylvia Santos and colleagues

Monday 9th July 2012

Cell division is triggered by the temporally abrupt activation of Cdk1-cyclin B1 protein complexes and temporally abrupt spatial redistribution of the complexes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Positive feedback loops control the switch-activation of Cdk1-cyclin B1 at the onset of cell division and a study published in Cell on June 22 showed that cells can use the same control strategy for regulation of Cdk1:cyclin B1 intracellular localization: positive feedback regulation. Santos and colleagues...

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellows Kerstin Gari and Simon Boulton and colleagues

Monday 2nd July 2012

The cytoplasmic protein MMS19 impacts on DNA metabolism by serving as a platform for iron-sulphur cluster transfer to DNA repair and replication proteins.

 

HFSP Program Grant holders Margaret Brimble and Arthur DeVries and colleagues

Monday 25th June 2012

In a classic case of convergent evolution, unrelated Arctic and Antarctic polar fishes have evolved almost identical mechanisms to deal with the shared problem of living with ice.

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Oliver Bell and colleagues

Friday 22nd June 2012

Protein binding is at the beginning of any DNA-templated reaction including readout of the genetic code. In mammals, genomic DNA forms a tight complex with proteins called chromatin. Chromatin naturally restricts binding of regulatory proteins and thus has to be dynamically altered to facilitate changes in gene expression in response to cellular cues. Chromatin-modifying enzymes catalyze chemical modifications, which have been implicated in promoting either condensation or accessibility of DNA....

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Daniela Berdnik and colleagues

Thursday 21st June 2012

Precisely assembled nerve connections are a prerequisite for the proper functioning of the nervous system. We found that neurons lacking a novel SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) protease were misrouted resulting in a disrupted neuronal map.

 

HFSP Program Grant holder Timothy Murphy and colleagues

Tuesday 19th June 2012

The extent to which movements are mapped by cortical to spinal cord hard wiring versus the properties of less constrained cortical synaptic networks (software) is unclear. Using light to selectively activate the output neurons of mouse motor cortex we show that cortical areas can be biased for general types of limb movement; however the execution of complex movements was dependent on the action of intracortical synaptic activity. An understanding of the regulation of movement will aid the development...

 

HFSP Cross-Disciplinary Fellow Fernando Montealegre-Z and colleagues

Friday 15th June 2012

In acoustic animals the physical size of the singer is believed to be encoded in the frequency of their calls, low-pitched calls are usually associated with large males and high-pitched calls with small males. This has been shown in many insects, like field crickets, but the rule seems not to apply to tree crickets. Male tree crickets produce tonal songs at low pitch with frequency varying from 2.3 to 3.7 kHz, using their fore wings. A new study by researchers at the University of Bristol, published...

 

HFSP Long-Term Fellow Pleuni Pennings

Monday 11th June 2012

HIV treatment nowadays works well, unless drug resistance evolves. To prevent the evolution of drug resistance, it is important to know the origin of the responsible mutations. We combined models from evolutionary biology with data from clinical trials to determine the origin of drug resistance mutations in patients with failed treatment. The analysis depends on the following idea: if pre-existing mutations are important, then the risk of treatment failure due to resistance must be highest when...

 

HFSP Young Investigator Grant holder Edo Kussell and colleagues

Friday 8th June 2012

Bacteria use restriction-modification systems to cleave foreign DNA at specific target sites, while protecting these same sites in their own genomes using methylation marks. Despite the protection afforded by methylation, restriction targets – short DNA ‘words’ recognized by a restriction enzyme – are significantly avoided in bacterial genomes. We hypothesize that such avoidance is the result of selective pressures due to rare events of bacterial DNA cleavage. Our theory demonstrates that...